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Limacodidae - Typenverzeichnis

Ăśber (27) Limacodidae

Die Familie Limacodidae umfasst ca.250 Kästen und wird von dem Spezialisten Dr. Alexey SOLOVYEV betreut und bearbeitet. Aus seiner Feder sind in den vergangenen Jahren viele Publikationen entstanden, in denen etwa 100 neue Arten beschrieben worden sind, die zum großen Teil aus diesem Material stammen. Die Chrysopolominae , die ausschließlich auf dem afrikanischen Kontinent verbreitet sind, werden hier als Unterfamilie geführt und umfassen 4 Kästen, die von Vadim ZOLOTUHIN aufgestellt wurden und auch Originalfotos der Holotypen enthalten.
Parasa vadimi Solovyev & Witt, 2009
(Limacodidae), Paratype
Phocoderma witti Solovyev, 2008
(Limacodidae), Holotype

Short characteristic of
Limacodidae (by Alexey V. SOLOVYEV)

The Limacodidae are a very diverse in all continents, and constitute a mainly tropical and subtropical family. The world fauna comprises about 1,500 species. Externally, the moths are quite different in size, wing pattern and coloration have a very characteristic silky shining on the forewing. The male antennae range from bipectinate to filiform; the female antennae are filiform.

Diagnostic features are reduced to small proboscis consisting of slightly spiral galeae, lacking chaetosemata and ocelli, presence of vein R3+R4, presence of a dense mat of ventral sensillae trichoideae on recessed pad without interspersed scales (EPSTEIN, 1996) and disc-shaped ovipositor lobes in female genitalia.

The moths are usually nocturnal and well attracted to light; they are often observed in a distinctive resting posture with the body held at an angle from the substrate supported by the extended legs with the wings draped laterally (GODFRAY et al., 1987). The larvae are mostly characteristic for the family. The head is retracted. The prolegs are absent. The thoracic legs are still visible though much reduced. The ventral surface of segments A1–A7 contains suckers that take part directly in peristaltic movement.The dorsum of larva contains spiny scoli, hairy tubercules, or verrucae in position D and SD (homology sensu EPSTEIN, 1996), or larva relatively smooth, without tubercules, or with gelatinous warts similar to those of Dalceridae. Young larvae often look very different from mature larvae of the same species. Typically, younger larvae have larger scoli and look more “spiny”. The larvae of most species appear to be polyphagous, feeding on a wide range of plant families, most of these plants are important economically.

At present, the family Limacodidae is placed into Zygaenoidea (SCOBLE, 1992; EPSTEIN et al., 1999; KUZNETZOV & STEKOLNIKOV, 2001) and associated with the limacodid-group of families including also Megalopygidae, Dalceridae, and Aididae (EPSTEIN, 1996).The family is presently separated in two subfamilies – Limacodinae and Chrysopolominae (EPSTEIN, 1996; EPSTEIN et al., 1999). The second one is known from tropical Africa and is often regarded as a separate family.

Literature references:

EPSTEIN, M. E. (1996): Revision and Phylogeny of the Limacodid-Group Families, with Evolutionary Studies on Slug Caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidea). — Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 582: 1–102.

EPSTEIN, M. E., GEERTSEMA, H., NAUMANN, C. M. & G. M. TARMANN (1999): The Zygaenoidea, pp. 159–180. In: KRISTENSEN, N. P. (ed.), Lepidoptera: Moths and Butterflies. 1. Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbook of Zoology. 4, Part 35. — De Gruyter, Berlin and New York, 491 pp.

GODFRAY, H. C. J., COCK, M. J. W. & J. D. HOLLOWAY (1987): Chapter 1. An introduction to the Limacodidae and their bionomics, pp. 1–8. In: COCK, M. J. W., GODFRAY, H. C. J. & HOLLOWAY, J. D. (eds). Slug and Nettle Caterpillars. — CAB International, Wallingford, England, UK, 270 pp., 36 pls.

KUZNETSOV, V. I. & A. A. STEKOLNIKOV (2001): New Approaches to the system of Lepidoptera of World Fauna (on the base of the functional morphology of abdomen). — Proceedings of the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences 282: 1–462 (in Russian).

SCOBLE, M. J. (1992): The Lepidoptera. Form, Function and Diversity. — Oxford University Press, 404 pp.